EFFECTIVENESS OF TECHNO PEDAGOGY TO ENHANCED BLENDED LEARNING AMONG BIOLOGY TEACHERS AT HIGHER SECONDARY LEVELSeptember 30, 2022
Sparkling International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research Studies
EFFECTIVENESS OF TECHNOLOGY-BASED INTERVENTION ON ACQUISITION OF GRAMMAR SKILLS OF MIDDLE SCHOOL CHILDREN
*Sahaya George Dharathi, S., & **Rexlin Jose, G.
*Research Scholar (Reg. No: 21214011042004), Department of Education, ManonmaniamSundaranar University, Tirunelveli, Tamilnadu, India.
**Assistant Professor, Department of Education (DD&CE), Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli, Tamilnadu, India.
Various technology-based interventions exist to support grammatical skills for students with learning difficulties. The provision of technology alone, however, isn’t sufficient. A teacher’s approach to implementing it may have an effect on student achievements. This study utilises various technologies to improve the grammatical skills of 35 students with learning disabilities in grades 6-8. The Research design consists of five phases: selection of the sample, content preparation, organising content based upon the syllabus, construction of achievement test, and Experimentation. The investigator has employed a pre-test – post-test Control Group design. The experimenter introduced the treatment with a module. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and a t-test. The results revealed that the average achievement scores after receiving the treatment on the module were statistically and significantly high. The mean score of experimental group Post-Test (20.31) was greater than the mean score of experimental group Pre-Test (16.77) on the acquisition of the grammatical skill of middle school children. The School Administrators and teachers can use this treatment as guidance to develop the grammatical skills of children with learning difficulties.
Keywords: technology-based interventions, grammatical skills, middle school children.
A review of technology-based interventions must first clarify the use of the word technology. The term is broadly defined as “the practical application of knowledge” or “the specialised aspects of a particular field of endeavour” (Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 1994, p. 1210). In the twenty-first century, a technology commonly denotes a variety of popular electromechanical devices such as cell phones, video recording equipment, and hand-held, desktop, and laptop personal computers.
Nowadays, English as a global language has some advantages for people around the world. English is used as a language to communicate across national borders. Using English to communicate may also help people to know, understand and respect each other, particularly those who have different backgrounds such as languages, cultures and ethnicities (Mukminin, Ali, & Ashari, 2015). Besides, it is a bridge to solve differences such as conflicts across the country globally, these conflicts are mostly avoidable with mediation and negotiation through English as a medium of communication (Pandarangga, 2015).
In India, English is considered a Second language. For all officials work in all over the India English language is used. English is regarded as one of the most popular foreign languages (Abrar et al., 2018; Husarida, & Dollete, 2019). In addition, English is one of the compulsory subjects in educational system. It is the main language for studying any subject all over the world. English is important for students as it broadens their minds, develops emotional skills, improve the quality of life by providing job opportunities.
In studying English, English grammar occupies a central position because it is one of the elements of the language which should be mastered. Mastering the grammar of language will affect the mastery of language skills (Effendy, Rokhyati, Rahman, Rakhmawati, & Pertiwi (2017). Moreover, grammar is beneficial for English learners because incorrect use or lack of understanding of grammar might hinder communication either in speaking, writing, listening, or reading (Savage, Bitterlin, & Price, 2010). Thus, grammar has an important role in learning English to enhance students become effective speakers.
Considering the main goal of English grammar learning, some researchers believe that enhancing learners’ grammatical awareness leads to several functions. English students require a good grasp of grammatical awareness to help them develop the target language (Shuib, 2009). Then, awareness and understanding of how a structure works help many students formulate how to say what they mean (Azar, 2007). It can be concluded that having grammatical awareness plays a pivotal role in English grammar learning. Despite the high importance of having grammatical awareness among English learners, in fact, many students still lack of grammatical awareness in learning English. In the line with this, Han and Kim (2017) claimed that EFL learners lack of grammatical awareness and they have a low proficiency level. Some students did not know the correct grammatical features due to lack of knowledge and grammatical competency (Refnita, 2014). Then, Andrews (1994) revealed that more than 50% trainees having inadequate grammatical awareness/ knowledge. Thus, several studies reveal that student still lack of grammatical awareness.
Students studying English as a second language must understand and grasp English grammar, which is one of the English skills made up of a system of a language. According to Greenbaum and Nelson (2002), grammar refers to the set rules that allow us to combine words in our language into larger units. The awareness of need for grammar teaching should be the emphasis on English learning especially among the teachers who use grammar instruction in the language classrooms. According to Savage et al. (2010), there are three roles that underline the importance of grammar in learning English. Grammar as a tool for success and grammar as a way to achieve independence. First, mastering grammar is a prerequisite for developing proficiency in speaking, listening, reading, and writing. Communication may be hampered by poor grammar or misunderstanding in any of these contexts. Second, learning grammar is crucial for learning a new language. Grammar’s last quality is independence. In addition to using the proper forms when they give oral presentations and write papers, students must comprehend grammatical structures as they listen to lectures, read manuals, and textbooks. Additionally, the capacity for self-correction results in self-sufficiency. Almost all students, regardless of their ability level or aspirations, can benefit from learning English grammar.
Nowadays we all are living in the digital era where every work is depending on the internet, text messaging, social media platforms, and other multimedia technologies. Likewise, students also utilise these digital skills in their lives outside the school and they expect an equal degree of technology opportunity in their scholastic lives. Presently every country understands the importance of ICT and focuses on mastering the basic skills of ICT along with the core academic subjects, reading, writing and numeracy (Meenakshi, 2013). The digital world makes learning more fun and interesting. Even wards also don’t know whether he/she learns something but at a particular time, they could recall it.
Review of Related Literature
Nutta (2001) conducted a study comparing the computer-based grammar instruction and the teacher-directed grammar instruction . The results showed that for all levels of English proficiency, the computer – based students scored significantly higher on open-ended tests covering the structures in question rather than the teacher-directed instruction. The results indicate that computer-based instruction can be an effective method of teaching L2 grammar.
Patel (2009) conducted a study titled “Development and Implementation of CAI to teach English grammar to standard VIII student in different modes” with the following objectives: (i) To develop the CAI to teach English Grammar to Standard VIII Gujarat Secondary and Higher Secondary Board (GS&HSEB) students in different modes (only CAI, CAI with repetition, CAI with discussion) (ii) To study the effectiveness of the developed CAI in different modes in terms of students’ achievement in English Grammar. (iii) To study the effectiveness of the developed CAI in terms of the reactions of students. (iv) To study the relative effectiveness of the developed CAI in different modes of presentation (only CAI, CAI with repetition, CAI with discussion) in terms of differences in the adjusted post-test mean achievement of the student in English Grammar. Findings: (i) The achievement of the students in English Grammar taught through CAI was found significantly higher than that of the students taught through traditional method. (ii) The achievement of the students taught through only CAI was found significantly higher in English Grammar than 60 that of the students taught through traditional method. (iii) The achievement of the students taught through CAI with repetition and CAI with Discussion was found significantly higher than the achievement of the students who were taught through traditional method. (iv) From the three modes of the presentation of this CAI, the mode i.e. teaching through CAI with discussion was found significantly superior in comparison to other two modes. (v) CAI was also found to be effective in terms of the students.
Johanna et al.. (1999) conducted a study titled “Enhancing English Language Skills using Multimedia: Tried and Tested”. This study reports on a research project conducted at the City University of Hong Kong which evaluated the effectiveness of a multimedia-based English language learning programme. A major component of the project was the development and production of an interactive multimedia CD-ROM, Business English, which constituted the basis for the enhanced English language proficiency programme. Results of the study indicate that students who completed the syllabus in a multimediaenhanced mode demonstrated significant improvement in listening skills when compared with students who completed the same syllabus in the traditional classroom mode. The results also demonstrate positive attitudinal changes for the multimedia enhanced mode of learning. Additionally, the study elaborates on the teaching–learning experience from the student and facilitator perspective.
Abraham et al.. (2001) conducted a study on “The effects of Multimedia on second language vocabulary learning and reading comprehension”. The present study examined the use of multimedia software, for enhancing vocabulary learning and reading comprehension of one hundred two students enrolled in third semester at intermediate level of Spanish classes. Specifically, the research investigated the effects of annotations in the form of video photographs, Study completed a pretest and posttest of 20 Spanish words annotated I the story for which they provided an English translation and completed two spatial ability tests and a test of their verbal ability in English. Finally, learner’s n the choice-lookup and forced lookup groups completed a questionnaire concerning the effectiveness of the multimedia annotations for learning vocabulary and for understanding the story. Participants in the choice lookup and force lookup group performed significantly between on the measures of vocabulary learning and reading comprehension than the controlled group. Spatial ability and verbal ability in English did not influence performance on the vocabulary posttest or recall protocol for the three groups. Overall, students in the choice-lookup and 69 forced lookup groups agreed that the multimedia annotations were effective for facilitating their understanding of the story and for learning new words.
Kim et al.. (2008) conducted a study titled “Effects of Text, Audio, and Graphic Aids in Multimedia Instruction for Vocabulary Learning”. This study is an investigation of the use of multimedia components such as visual text, spoken text, and graphics in a Web-based self-instruction program to increase learners’ English vocabulary learning at Myungin Middle School in Seoul, South Korea. A total of 172 middle school students (14 years of age) in five classes participated in the 78 study. Each individual was required to complete several testing instruments such as a pretest, post-test, retention test, and attitude inventory. Participants learned better when they received “visual text and added graphics” or “visual text, added spoken text, and added graphics” instruction. Although the added multimedia components required learners to spend more time on the instruction, the extra time was not significant. The results lead one to conclude that an effective way to improve the learning of English vocabulary is to offer graphics that illustrate what the vocabulary means.
The research gap
The investigator reviewed many studies with regard to their title but she couldn’t get across such kind of study done by any researcher.
Dependent Variable – Grammar Skill
Independent Variable – Technology Based Intervention
Tecno – Grammar Tool [self made tool]
100 middle school students of GHSS, Vallioor
The Technology-based Intervention module verified by experts. The correction was done as suggested by them
Technology-based Intervention module
Duration of the Experiment
1 Months(2 hours a day)
The investigator administered the Self–Made Tool which consists of 3 Phases.
Phase I: Selection of Module
The investigator selected a Technology-Based Intervention module to improve the grammar skills of middle school children.
Phase II: Organising the Module
The investigator organise the modules from simple to complex and the Scoring key was made to evaluate their performance.
Phase III: Incorporating and integrating the Module
The investigator integrated & incorporated content with the Technology-Based Intervention module and synchronised these with an audio track by editing the module with the help of numerous editing software. The validity of Computer Integrated Modules was verified by experts. The corrections were done as suggested by them.
Pre Test Analysis
- There is no significant difference between the pre-test scores of control group and experimental group on the acquisition of the grammatical skill of middle school children.
Post Test Analysis
- There is no significant difference between the post-test scores of control group and experimental group on the acquisition of the grammatical skill of middle school children.
Pre – Post Test Analysis
- To find out the significant difference between the pre-test and post-test scores of control group on the acquisition of the grammatical skill of middle school children.
- To find out the significant difference between the pre-test and post-test scores of experimental group on the acquisition of the grammatical skill of middle school children.
Data Collection Procedure
- The researcher explained the purpose and details of the research and requested their cooperation in the research, the intelligence test and medical examination were conducted on the middle school children.
- The 100 middle school children received the treatment on the Technology-Based Intervention Module for 30 days. The researcher conducted the treatment session for 60 minutes.
- After 1 month of treatment, a post-test was conducted.
The data were analysed as follows
- Descriptive statistics- t-test.
- Compare the difference of means scores before and after receiving the treatment with Technology-Based Intervention.
i) Pre Test Analysis
H1: There is no significant difference between the pre-test scores of the control group and experimental group on the acquisition of the grammatical skill of middle school children.
Table 1. Difference between the pre-test scores of the control group and experimental group on the acquisition of the grammatical skill of middle school children.
|Group||Mean||N||S.D||Calculated t value||P- Value||Remarks|
Pre – Test
Not Significant at 0.05 Level
It is inferred from the above table (1) that, the t value is not significant at 0.05 level of significance. Therefore, the null hypothesis is accepted. Hence, the null hypothesis was accepted, It showed that the students of control and experimental groups did not differ significantly in the pre test level.
ii) Post- Test Analysis
H2: There is no significant difference between the post-test scores of the control group and experimental group on the acquisition of the grammatical skill of middle school children.
Table 2. Difference between the post-test scores of the control group and experimental group on the acquisition of the grammatical skill of middle school children.
Calculated t value
Post – Test
Significant at 0.05 Level
It is inferred from the above table (2) that, the t value is significant at 0.05 level of significance. Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected. Hence it can be said that the students of control and experimental groups differ significantly at the post-test level.
iii) Pre Test – Post Test Analysis
H3: To find out the significant difference between the pre-test and post-test scores of control group on the acquisition of the grammatical skill of middle school children
Table 3. Difference between the mean scores of the Pre-Test and Post-Test scores of control group on the acquisition of the grammatical skill of middle school children.
|Test||Mean||N||S.D||Calculated t value||P value||Remarks|
NS- Not Significant at 0.05 level
It was inferred from the above table (3) that, the t value is not significant at 0.05 level of significance. Therefore the null hypothesis is accepted. Hence it can be said that there is no significant difference between pretest and post test scores of control group students.
H4: To find out the significant difference between the pre-test and post-test scores of experimental group on the acquisition of the grammatical skill of middle school children.
Table 4. Difference between the mean scores of the Pre-Test and Post-Test scores of experimental group on the acquisition of the grammatical skill of middle school children.
Calculated t value
S- Significant at 0.05 level
It was inferred from the above table (4) that, the t value is significant at 0.05 level of significance. Therefore the null hypothesis is rejected. Hence it can be said that there is significant difference between pretest and post test scores of control group students.
Delimitations of this Study
- The study focused only on middle school children, the sample might not represent other classes.
- The selected technology-based intervention modules are limited.
Based on the current search results researcher recommends the Ministry of Education as follows:
- The government may insist on Educational authorities and give instructions to them to verify whether all teachers use the lab daily for their innovative teaching.
- NCERT may take enough steps to undergo research on improving the English Grammar skill of middle school children.
- English teachers must give language games, and drill exercises to students which will help them practice the language and minimise the communication problem.
- Audio – video visual aids should be given the practice to improve their grammar skill.
The use of technology-based intervention modules significantly improved the Grammar skill of middle school children. Thus, the use of these technology-based intervention modules s to help middle school students thrive in English speaking is a clear research consequence of this study. The results of the Pre- and Post-tests show how the technology-based intervention modules helped middle school students improve their communication skills.
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To cite this article
Sahaya George Dharathi, S., & Rexlin Jose, G. (2022). Effectiveness of Technology-Based Intervention on Acquisition of Grammar Skills of Middle School Children. Sparkling International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research Studies, 5(3), 1-11.