EduSpark_v2i4_October-December 2020
April 11, 2021
EduSpark_v3i2_April-June 2021
June 30, 2021

Sparkling International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research Studies

(A Quarterly Peer Reviewed/Refereed Multidisciplinary Journal)

Volume 4 Issue 2 April - June 2021

AGRICULTURAL AND MARKETING PRACTICES DURING BRITISH PERIOD IN THE MADRAS PRESIDENCY

Gomathi, M.

Assistant Professor, Vivekananda College of Education, Kanyakumari District, Tamilnadu, India.

Abstract


At the period of the acquisition of the Madras Presidency by the British, the country was teeming with villages. The village had a definite geographical area and comprised some hundreds of acres of arable and wasteland. These villages formed distinct societies by themselves, self-sufficing in the matter of most of the fundamental necessities and even of several of the comforts of life. The distinctive feature of the early nineteenth century was the universal existence of fortifications, reflecting the extreme insecurity of the times. The soils and climate of the Presidency favoured the production of a great variety of crops.  Contemporary accounts of the various districts teem with references to the country’s manifold potentialities in respect of agriculture. The several districts manuals compiled twenty and thirty years later present much the same picture of methods of cultivation. The implements of agriculture were few and simple the most noteworthy feature was that the quantity of manure was deficient and the method of applying it unsatisfactory. The vast majority of the agriculturists were so poor that they were obliged to borrow money and exorbitant rates to cultivate the coarsest of grains and even for very subsistence. Many of the ryots’s deficiencies could be removed by the spread of knowledge and the establishment of government agencies that would introduce and popularise advanced methods of agriculture but the chief desideratum was an improvement in his economic position.

Keywords


agriculture, crop production, irrigation, cultivation

SELF-DETERMINATION EVEN IN PHYSICAL AILMENT IN JOHN GREEN’S NOVEL TURTLES ALL THE WAY DOWN

*Rex Lumine Nirmal. J., L., & **Jesu Latha, J.

*Research Scholar, (Reg.No: 20113014011007), Department of English, Annai Velankanni College, Tholayavattam, Kanniyakumari District,  Affiliated to Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli, Tamilnadu, India.

**Associate Professor & Research Supervisor, Department of English, Annai Velankanni College, Tholayavattam, Kanniyakumari District, Affiliated to Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli, Tamilnadu, India.

Abstract


The main aim of this paper is to show the suffering, struggle, and surviving life of the protagonist. John Green’s Turtles All the Way Down examines the life problems of the protagonist. She has been surviving from infection. This paper encourages and examines the self-determination theory based on health, psychological and pathological ideas. The paper describes how the self-determination theory is suitable to the character of the protagonist and her life.  Here the novel explains the life of the protagonist, her struggle, and her destination. This paper explains the life of protagonist and how the protagonist is self-motivate herself and how she have face all the troubles and overcome to reach her destination. The novel indicates the protagonist as a self-motivated and the strongest person. The paper describes the novel through the theory, which is explained and elaborated by Deci and Ryan.

Keywords


suffer, struggle, survive, self-determination, self-motivation, theory.

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Abstract


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Keywords


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Abstract


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Keywords


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