Associate Professor of History, Rani Anna Government College for Women, Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India
Ignatius Loyola founded the Society of Jesus on 27th September 1540. The Jesuits were able to convert millions of people to Catholicism. Francis Xavier, Henrique Henriqus and many others spread Christianity in south India. Antonio Criminali was one such Jesuit who came to India to spread Catholicism. During the process of evangelization, he was murdered in a war near Vedhalai and his body was not found. He could be termed as a ‘Forsaken Jesuit’, because nothing was done to locate his remains or to pursue further research over the issue. This article analyses about the evangelization of Jesuits with special reference to Antonio Criminali.
jesuits, criminali, evangelization, paravas, caraiyar, badagas, nayaks, portugese.
Arch Diocese of Madurai Origin and Development, Nobili Pastoral Centre, Madurai, p.132.
Arul Santhiyagu. Parish Priest Thangachi Madam, Personal Interview. 11 March 2018.
Caldwell, R. A History of Tinnevely. Asian Educational Services, New Delhi, 1982.
Ferroli, D. S.J. The Jesuits in Malabar. vol. I, Calicul, 1939.
Francis, A. ‘Jesuit Letters and Tamil Social history’, Tamil Kalai Journal (Tamil), vol. 3, no.1, 2, 1985.
George Schurhammer, S.J. Francis Xavier, His Life, His Times. vol. II, India, 1541 – 1545. Translated by Joseph Costelloe, M. S.J., The Jesuit Historical Institute, Via dei Penitenziei, 20, Rome, Italy, 1977.
Henry Heras. South India under the Vijayanagar Empire. vol. I, New Delhi, 1980.
Henry James Coleridge. The Life and Letters of St. Franci’s Xavier. vol. I, 4th ed., London, 1927.
Jayaraj. Parish Priest, Thangachi Madam, Personal Interview. 11 March 2018.
Joseph Wicki, editor. Documenta Indica. vol. XVII, (1595-1587), 1988. p.17.
Joseph Wicki, editor. Documenta Indica. vol. XII, (1580-1583), 1972.
Justin Prabhu, S.J. Personal Interview. 12 March 2018.
Krishnaswari, A. The Tamil Country under Vijayanagar. Annamalai Nagar, 1964. p. 239.
Letters of Xavier, January 15, 1544. pp. 45-65.
Letters of Xavier, October 28, 1452. pp. 60-65.
Panikkar, K. M. A History of Kerala 1498 – 1801. Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, 1959.
Saints and Martyrs, S. G. Anthony Criminali, The Jesuits, Jesuit Singapore Website. www.jesuit.org.sg.
The Indigenous Religious Congregations India and Ceylon. Madurai, 1948.
Thekkedath, J. History of Christianity in India. vol. II, Theological Publications in India, Bangalore, 1982.
Tom Dowley. The History of Christianity. England, 1964.
Venantius Fernando, S.J. The Impact of the Portuguese Padroado on the Pearl Fishery Coast. Pontificia Universities, Urbania, Roma, 1977. (Unpublished Thesis). pp. 154 – 155.
Vettivayal vazhavan. Arul Manakkum Thirukovilgal. (Tamil), Sivagangai, 2014. pp. 5-7.
To cite this article
Theeba, A. (2019). Evangelization of the Jesuits with Special Reference to Antonio Criminali. Sparkling International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research Studies, 2(1), 12-20.