SELF-DETERMINATION EVEN IN PHYSICAL AILMENT IN JOHN GREEN’S NOVEL TURTLES ALL THE WAY DOWN
June 30, 2021
சங்கத்தமிழரின் உணவும் விருந்தோம்பல் பண்பாடும்
June 30, 2021

Sparkling International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research Studies

Volume 4           Issue 2          April – June 2021           Pages 19-24

,e;jpa kz;zpy; md;dpT+l;ng]d;w; – xU Nehf;F

Nfrtd;> v];.

Nkdhs;jiyth>; tpupTiuahsu; – G-1> ,e;Jehfupfj;Jiw> fpof;Fg; gy;fiyf;fofk;> ,yq;if.

Ma;Tr;RUf;fk;


etPd fhyj;J rPh;jpUj;j rpe;jidahsUs; xUth; md;dT+l;ng]d;w;. yz;ldpy; gpwe;j ,th; ,e;jpa ,af;fj;jpd; mfpy ,e;jpa jiytuhf cau;e;jth;. mtu;jhd; md;dpng]d;l; mk;ikahu; Mthu;. mtuJ fUj;Jf;fspy; epiwa Kuz;ghL ,Ue;jhYk; mtuJ jpahf ciog;ig> Nghuhl;l Fzj;ij Nghw;whky; ,Uf;f KbahJ. rpWtu;fSf;fhd fijfs;> fl;LiufSk; ,jpy; mlq;Fk;. gz;iz tptrhapfspd; cupikfSf;fhff; Fuy; nfhLj;jhu;. ehj;jpfj;ijf; iftpl;L Mj;jpfuhjy;> gpuk;kQhd rigapd; jiytp> rkak;> jj;Jtk;> mwptpay; Mfpatw;wpy; xg;gha;T nra;jth;. ,e;jpa tpLjiyg; Nghuhl;lj;jpy; gq;Nfw;G> fhq;fpu]; jiyikg; gjtp> fhrpg;gy;fiyf;fofj;jpy; Nrit vd gy Nritfs; Gupe;jth; Mthu;.

fiyr;nrhw;fs;: md;dpTT+l;ng]d;w; (AnniewoodBesant) etPdfhy rPh;jpUj;jthjp gpuk;kQhd rig> ,e;jpa tpLjiyg;Nghuhl;lk;> fhq;fpu]; jiyikg;gjtp> fhrpg;gy;fiyf;fofk;> rkak;> jj;Jtk;> mwptpay;.


Ma;T mwpKfk;

etPd fhyj;J rPh;jpUj;j rpe;jidahsUs; xUth; md;dT+l;ng]d;w;. yz;ldpy; gpwe;j ,th; ,e;jpa ,af;fj;jpd; mfpy ,e;jpa jiytuhf cau;e;jth;. Mtu;jhd; md;dp ng]d;l; mk;ikahu; Mthu;. mtuJ fUj;Jf;fspy; epiwa Kuz;ghL ,Ue;jhYk; mtuJ jpahf ciog;ig> Nghuhl;l Fzj;ij Nghw;whky; ,Uf;f KbahJ. vdNt mtuJ Nritia rKfj;jpw;F nfhz;L nry;tNj Ma;thsuJ Kf;fpa Nehf;fkhFk;.

,sikf;fhyKk;> ,y;tho;f;ifAk;

md;dT+l;ng]d;w;. mf;Nlhgu; 1> 1847-k; Mz;L xU rhjhuz Iupaf; FLk;gj;jpy; yz;ld;> If;fpa ,uhr;rpaj;jpy; gpwe;jhu;.1 je;ij tpy;ypak; ig[;T+l; mau;yhe;jpy; gpwe;J yz;ldpy; FbNawpatu;. mtuJ FLk;gk; kpfTk; Vo;ikahd FLk;gk;. ,aw;ngau; md;dpT+l; vd;gjhFk;. tWikapy; thba yz;ld; Fbirg;gFjpf; Foe;ijfSf;F nuhl;bj; Jz;LfSk; fy;tpAk; Gfl;l> ‘grpj;j rpWtu; ,y;yhr; r%fk;’ (No more-Hungry Children) vDk; FOit md;dpT+l; mikj;J top elj;jpa NghJ md;dpT+l;bw;F gjpndhU taJ MFk;. ,th;  jdJ 19-tJ tajpy; 1867-Mk; Mz;by; gpuhq;f; ngrz;l; vd;w 26 taJila kj FUit kze;jhu;.2 md;dpT+l; ng]d;l;> Ie;J tajhf ,Uf;Fk; NghJ je;ijia ,oe;jhu;. md;id `Nuh efupy; Mz;fs; ghlrhiy xd;iw elj;jp te;jhu;. bf;gp> Nkngy; vd;w ,uz;L ngz; Foe;ijfisg; ngw;nwLj;jhu;. fztUld; ,ize;J tho;tJ md;dpf;F kpfTk; fblkhf ,Ue;jJ.

kfSf;F Vw;gl;l NehAk; mtuJ tho;tpay; #oYk; md;dpf;F flTs; kPjhd mtek;gpf;ifia tpijj;jJ. kfSf;F Vw;gl;l Nehapd; fhuzkhf kdKile;J Nghd ,th; ehj;jpfuhdhh;. fztd;> kidtpia NfhapYf;F nry;Yk; gbAk; fpwp];jtf; nfhs;iff;Nfw;g elf;FkhWk; $wpdhh;. Rje;jpu kdg;ghq;F nfhz;l ,th; fztuplk; ,Ue;J 1873-,y; gpupe;J tho KbntLj;jhu;. ,Wjpahf fztd;> Foe;ijfis tpl;Lg; gpupe;J yz;lDf;Fj; jpUk;gpdhu;. mjpfhuG+u;tkhfg; gpuptpid fpilf;ftpy;iy. ,uz;L Foe;ijfSk; gpuhq;fpd; nghWg;gpNyNa ,Ue;jdu;.

murpaypy; <LghL

md;dpapd; murpay; Nghf;F fztuplk; ,Ue;J mtiu NkYk; gpupj;jJ. fztuplk; ,Ue;J gpupe;j gpd;du; epiwa fl;Liufs; vOjj; njhlq;fpdhu;.3 rpWtu;fSf;fhd fijfs;> fl;LiufSk; ,jpy; mlq;Fk;. gz;iz tptrhapfspd; cupikfSf;fhff; Fuy; nfhLj;jhu;.

rPu;jpUj;jthjp

“epA+khy; J}rpad; mikg;G” vd;w rPu;jpUj;jr; rq;fj;Jf;Fj; jiytpahdhu; md;dpngrz;l;. ehlhSkd;w mq;fj;jpdu;fs; flTspd; ngauhy; rj;jpak; nra;aj; Njitapy;iy vd;W tw;GWj;jp $l;lq;fspy; Ngrpdhu;. “ypq;f;” vd;w ngaupy; gj;jpupifiaj; njhlq;fp> ,e;jpahtpYk; mau;yhe;jpYk; tpLjiyg; Nghuhl;lq;fSf;F Mjuthf vOjpdhu;. %lg;gof;ftof;fq;fSf;nfjpuhfg; gug;Giuia Muk;gpj;jhu;. ,jdhy; kj r%fj;jpdupd; vjpu;g;Gf;F Mshdhu;.4

,yq;ifapw; nfhNyhdy; Xy;nfhl;> mehfupf ju;kghyhTld; ,ize;J ngsj;j gpukQhdj;ijg; gpurhuk; nra;Jk; ngsj;j rkaQ;rhu;e;j ghlrhiyfis epWtpAk; (Mde;jf; fy;Y}up Kjyhfg; gy gs;spfs;) gzpGupe;jhu;.

ehj;jpfj;ijf; iftpl;L Mj;jpfuhjy;;

The Secret Doctrine vd;w E}iy vOjpa gpNstl;];fp mk;ikahiu ghuprpy; 1889-Mk; Mz;by; re;jpf;Fk; tha;g;Gf; fpl;baJ. ,J md;dp ngrz;bd; tho;f;ifapy; Md;kPfk; rhu;e;j ngUk; khWjiy Vw;gLj;jpaJ. jd;Dila ehj;jpf thjj;ijf; iftpl;L Mj;jpfuhdhu;. gpNstl;];fpapd; gpuk;kQhd rq;fj;jpy; cWg;gpduhdhu;. ,jid mLj;J khu;f;rpathjpfSld; jdf;fpUe;j cwTfisj; Jz;bj;Jf; nfhz;lhu;. mr;rigapd; rhu;gpy; 1893-Mk; Mz;by; rpfhNfhtpy; ,lk;ngw;w cyf nfhyk;gpa fz;fhl;rpapy; fye;J nfhz;lhu;.

gpuk;kQhd rigapd; jiytp

1893-Mk; Mz;by; gpuk;kQhd rigapd; cWg;gpduhf Kjw; jlitahf ,e;jpah te;jhu;. rigapd; mnkupf;ff; fpisapd; jiytuhd tpy;ypak; [l;[; vd;gtUld; Vw;gl;l fUj;J Nkhjy;fisj; njhlu;e;J mnkupf;ff; fpis jdpahfg; gpupe;jJ. kPjkpUe;j rig n`d;wp ];By; xy;nfhl; vd;gtuhYk; md;dp ngrz;bdhYk; jiyik tfpf;fg;gl;lJ.5

,jw;F Md;kpf tho;f;ifiag; gw;wpr; rpwg;ghf NgRk; gy ,iwapay; E}y;fisf; Mjhukhff; nfhz;lhh;. mtw;wpy; rpy tUkhW>

  1. `r;. gp. gpshtl;];fp – topKiwj; nja;tPfk; (Practical Occultism)
  2. `r;. gp. gpshtl;];fp – nksdj;jpd; Fuy; (Voice of the Silence)
  3. lgps;A+. yPl; gPl;lu; – FUkhu;fSk;> ghijAk; (The Masters and the path)
  4. My;]pNahd; – FUehju; jpUtbapy; (At the feet of the Master)
  5. ,tw;Wld; jhd; vOjpa>
  • md;dpngrd;l; – ‘ntspg;Gwj;jpy;’ (In the outer Court),
  • md;dpngrd;l; – rPldhFk; khu;f;fk; (The path of discipleship) ,tuJ ,d;Dk; gy E}y;fs; Kf;fpaj;Jtk; ngWfpd;wd.6

rkak;> jj;Jtk;> mwptpay; Mfpatw;wpd; xg;gha;T (The Essential Unity if all religions)

lhf;lu; gfthd;jh];> ‘rkaq;fspd; ,d;wpaikahj xw;Wik’ vd;w jkJ E}ypy; $Wfpwhu; (g.14)> ,aw;ifia MSk; xUikg;ghLjhd; gz;gl;l $l;likg;G> ,uf;fk; Mfpatw;Wf;F Mjhuk;. rkaq;fSf;fpilNa cs;s mt;nthUikg; ghl;ilf; fz;lwptNj gz;ghl;il tsu;f;Fk;.’ ,iwapay; (Theosophy) Nehf;fpy; rkaq;fis md;dT+l;ng]d;w; ‘VO ngUQ; rkaq;fs;’ (Seven Great Religions)7 tifg;gLj;jpAs;shH. gpuk;kQhd rigf;F ,e;jpahtpy; gy fpisfs; cs;sd. mit ,e;jpa rka> r%f rPu;jpUj;jq;fSf;Fj; jk;khyhd gq;fspg;ig toq;fpd.

md;dpngrd;l; mk;ikahu; gpuk;k Qhdpfs; gpd;tUk; tpjpfisg; gpd;gw;w Ntz;Lk; vd tpjpj;jhu;.

  1. rhjp NtWghL ghu;f;ff; $lhJ.
  2. ngz; Foe;ijfSf;Fk; kidtpf;Fk; fy;tp Nghjpf;f Ntz;Lk;.
  3. ngz;fSf;F 21 taJf;Fs; jpUkzk; nra;af;$lhJ. tpjit kWkzj;ij Mjupj;jy; Nghd;wd. ,tw;iw jhNd gpd;gw;wpf; fhl;bdhu;.

,e;jpa tpLjiyg; Nghuhl;lj;jpy; gq;Nfw;G

,e;jpahtpy; Mq;fpNya Ml;rpia vjpu;j;J ele;j gy Nghuhl;lq;fis gbj;Jk;> Neupy; ghu;j;Jk; tsu;e;jjhy; Mq;fpy murpd; mlf;FKiwfs; mtiu ntFthfg; ghjpj;jd. ,e;jpa tpLjiyg; Nghuhl;lj;jpw;F Mjuthf ‘fhkd; tPy;’ vd;w thug; gj;jpupifia 1913-k; Mz;by; Muk;gpj;jhu;. 1914-Mk; Mz;by; nrd;idapy; ,Ue;J epA+ ,e;jpah vd;w ngaupy; ehNsL xd;iw Muk;gpj;J elj;jpdhu;. ,jd; %yk; mtu; murpaypy; fsk; ,wq;fpdhu;.

,e;jpa Njrpa fhq;fpu]pd; xUfhy; jiytpAk;> ,e;jpa Njrpa czu;Tf;Fj; J}z;LNfhyha; mike;jtUk; jkJ fhyj;jpNy jiyrpwe;j nrhw;nghopthsuha;g; Nghw;wg; gl;ltUkhd md;dT+l;ng]d;w; mk;ikahu;> ,aw;ifapNyNa Gul;rp kdg;ghd;ik nfhz;ltuhjyhy;> Mq;fpy murpd; mlf;FKiwfs; mtiu ntFthfg; ghjpj;jd.

Njrpa murpaypy; md;dpngrd;il vjpu;j;j ghujp ,e;J kjj;jpw;F md;dT+l;ng]d;w; Mw;wpa gzpfs; md;dpa [hjpfspy; gpwe;j NghjpYk; md;dpngrd;il ,e;Jthf ehd; ghu;f;fpNwd;. mts; rupahd ,e;J. Mjyhy; ek;Kila rNfhjup vd;gij xg;Gf; nfhs;fpNwhk;. ,e;Jf;fNs md;dT+l;ng]d;w;Wf;F ed;wp $wNtz;Lk; vd;Wiuj;jhH.

fhq;fpu]; jiyikg; gjtp

1907-Mk; Mz;by; #uj; efupy; ,lk; ngw;w ,e;jpa fhq;fpu]; khehl;by; fye;J nfhz;lhu;. ,k;khehl;by; kpjthjpfSf;Fk; jPtputhjpfSf;Fk; Vw;gl;l fUj;J NtWghL fspdhy; Vw;gltpUe;j ngUk; gpsitj; jtpu;j;J> yf;Ndhtpy; ,lk; ngw;w khehl;by; ,U gpuptpdiuAk; ,izj;J ntw;wp fz;lhu;. N`hk; &y; (Rahl;rp) ,af;fj;ijj; njhlq;fpdhu;. ehL KOtjpYk; mjd; fpisfs; cUthapd. md;dT+l;ng]d;w; jdJ jiyikg; gjtpf; fhyj;jpy; ehL KOtJk; Rw;Wg; gazk; Nkw;nfhz;L> tpLjiy ,af;fj;ij tYg;ngwr; nra;jhu;. gphpj;jhdpahtpw;F gazk; Nkw;nfhz;l NghJ mq;F ,e;jpa tpLjiyf;F Mjuthf Nkilfspy; ciuahw;wpdhh;. nghJeytha ,e;jpah vd;w ngahpy; mwpf;if xd;iw gphpj;jhdpa ghuhSkd;wj;Jf;F mDg;gp itj;jhh;.8

md;dpngrz;bd; Rw;Wg; gazq;fSf;Fk; nghJf; $l;lq;fSf;Fk; Mq;fpNya muR jil nra;jJ. 1917> [_d; 15-Mk; ehs; Vida fhq;fpu]; jiytu;fSld; md;dp ngrz;ilAk; ifJ nra;jJ.  brk;gu; 1917-Mk; Mz;by; fy;fj;jhtpy; ele;j khehl;by; ,e;jpa fhq;fpurpd; jiytuhf Xuhz;bw;Fj; njupthdhu;. ntspehl;by; gpwe;J ,e;jpa kf;fspd; tpLjiyf;fhf Nghuhba me;j ngz;kzpf;Ff; fpilj;j kfj;jhd mq;fPfhuk; ,J.

,tu;fspd; ifijf; fz;bj;J fhq;fpu]; ,af;fk;> kw;Wk; K];ypk; yPf; Mfpad rj;jpahf;fpufk; nra;ag; Nghtjhf mwptpj;jJ. ,jdhy; epiy Fiye;j Mq;fpy muR nrg;lk;gupy; ,tu;fis tpLjiy nra;jJ. jdJ vz;gj;jpNahuhtJ mfitapy; jPtpu murpaypy; ,Ue;J tpyfpa md;dp ngrz;l; ,Wjpf; fhyq;fspy; ,e;jpa nka;apayhsuhd [pl;L fpU];z %u;j;jpAld; neUq;fpa njhlu;igg; Ngzpdhu;. gpuk;kQhd rigapd; Kd;Ndw;wj;jpy; Kidg;ghf <Lgl;lhu;.

fhrpg;gy;fiyf;fofk;

fhrpapy; rpy fhyk; trpj;j md;dpngrz;l mq;F ,e;J rka tpsf;fq;fis Kiwg;gb fw;whu;. ,e;J rhj;jpuq;fis Mo;e;J gbj;J gy E}y;fis vOjpdhu;. gftj;fPijia Mq;fpyj;jpy; nkhop ngau;j;jhu;. ,e;jpa cil jupj;J ,e;JthfNt thoyhdhu;.;9 vy;yhg; gzpfspYk; Kjd;ikahf ,e;jpah Kjypy; Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz;baJ> mJ jd; Guhjd rkaq;fSf;Fg; Gj;JapUk; tYTk; mspg;gNjahFk;. ,jd; %yk; Ra nfsutKk; ,we;j fhyk; gw;wpa ngUkpj czu;Tk; vjpu; fhyj;jpd; kPJ ek;gpf;ifAk; gpwf;Fk;. ,tw;wpd; tpisthf ehl;Lg;gw;nwd;Dk; Nguiyfs; vOe;J ehl;il kPsf; fl;bnaOg;Gtjw;fhd njhlf;fk; cUthFk; vd;gJ md;dpngrd;bd; $w;W. jhk; mwpTWj;jpa cz;ikf;Fr; nraYUtk; toq;ff; fhrpapNy ,e;J cau;gs;spiaj; jkJ nrhe;j %yjdj;ij ,l;L mtu; njhlq;fpdhu;> mJ fy;Y}upaha; tsu;e;J> 1915-,y; fhrpg;gy;fiyf;fofk; Mapw;W.

KbTiu

gpuk;kQhdthjp> ngz;Zupikthjp> rpwe;j Ngr;rhsu;> vOj;jhsu; vd mwpag;gl;l md;dpT+l;ng]d;l; vz;gj;Njohk; mfitapy; nrg;lk;gu; 20> 1933 milahW> jkpo;ehL> ,e;jpahtpy; fhykhdhu;. mtuJ kiwtpw;Fg; gpd;du;> mtuJ ez;gu;fs; N[.fpU];z%u;j;jp> Myl]; `f;];yp> Nuhrypd; uh[Nfhghy; MfpNahu; ,ize;J fypNghu;dpahtpy; “`g;gp typ vDk; ghlrhiyia mikj;jhu;fs;. ,g;ghlrhiy jw;NghJ md;dpngrz;bd; epidthf ngrz;l; `py; ghlrhiy vdg; ngau; khw;wg;gl;Ls;sJ. md;dpngrz;l; mikj;j nrd;id milahwpy; cs;s gpUk;kQhd rig ,d;Wk; mtu; Gfo; gug;gpf; nfhz;bUf;fpwJ. fypNghu;dpahtpy; ,tuJ epidthff; ngrd;l; ghlrhiy fhzg;gLfpwJ. ,jd; fpisf;fy;Y}up ngrd;l; gpuk;kQhd fy;Y}upahFk;.

 

mbf;Fwpg;G


  1. vikatan.com
  2. tamil.samayam.com
  3. wikipedia
  4. The history of Birkbeck, university of London
  5. nrd;id milahw;wpy; gpukQhd rigia cUthf;fp mjd; jiytpaha; tpsq;fpdhu;. gpuk;kQhdj;jpd; rhuk; midj;ijAk; njhFj;J toq;fpatuhf mtu; nfhs;sg;gLfpwhu;.
  6. Immediate Future, Influence of Alcohol, Karma, Laws of the Higher Life, Life and Life after Death, Man and His Bodies, Meaning and Method of Spiritual Life, Modern Science and the Higher Self, Mysticism, On Moods, Pain – It’s Meaning and Use, Path of Discipleship, Public Spirit, Ideal and Practical, Reality of the Invisible, Reincarnation, Riddle of Life, Seven Principles of Man, Some Difficulties of Inner Life, Some Problems of Life, Spiritual Life – Volume 11, Spiritual Life for the Man of the World, Study in Consciousness, Study in Karma, Theosophy and the New Psychology, Thought Forms, Thought Power, Value of Devotion, Vegetarianism in the Light of theosophy, Voice of the Silence – Commentary, Web of Life, When A Man Dies, Shall He Live Again, World Religion
  7. gpuk;kQhd rig (,iwapay; fofk;)> gf;. 417-418
  8. nfsrpfd;> tuyhW gilj;j cj;jkh;fs;> fq;if> nrd;id. 2003> gf;-407
  9. jpdkdp.com

 

To cite this article


Kesvan, S. (2021). ,e;jpa kz;zpy; md;dpT+l;ng]d;w; – xU Nehf;FSparkling International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research Studies, 4(2), 19-24.