BREAKING THE STEREO TYPES: A STUDY OF THE MOVIE ASTITVA
September 30, 2019
BREAKING THE SILENCE : A CRITICAL READING OF MADHAVAN’S FEAR OF PULAYAS
September 30, 2019

THE NATURE OF SASWATAM TENURE AND THE COLONIAL LAND LAW

Gopika G

Research Scholar, Department of History, Sree Sankaracharya University of Sanskrit, Kalady, Ernakulam District, Kerala, India.

Abstract


Saswatam is the word used to denote perpetual leases in Malabar. Perpetual leases are grants of land made over by the overlord, temple and the Brahmins to their subordinates as the remuneration for the service they rendered. These grants were known by different names. The grantees had enjoyed hereditary permanent right over these grants. According to the pre- colonial land law the right over land indicated solely their right and interest over the share of produce from the land. This customary law of rights and interests on land were reinterpreted on the basis of western idea of private property on land. The colonial land law declared Janmi as the sole proprietor of the soil, as the result the hereditary holders were disposed of their right. The independent right of the tenants were disturbed with the intervention of law courts. The Janmis resorted various measures to oust the tenants from their land with the legal support. Second half of the 19th century witnessed active involvement of colonial judiciary in settling the dispute raised over the proprietary right on the land granted on perpetual lease.

Keywords


saswatam tenure, colonial land law, malabar

References


A.I.R. Commentaries: the Transfer of Property Act IV of 1882, vol. iii, 3rd edition, Nagpur, 1949, p. 1608.

Anantha Narayana Ayar, T.G,  A Digest of Malabar Law Cases, First Edition, The Industrial School Press, Ernakulum, 1918.

Bose, B.D,  Digest of Indian Law Cases containing High Court Reports,1862-1909 and Reports of Appeals from India, 1836 – 1909, Superintendent Government Printing, Calcutta, 1912.

Chakravarthy, B.R. Land Law in Madras Presidency, P.R. Rama Iyer & Co., Madras, 1927.

Chitaley, D.V., and Ramaratnam, N. The Fifty Years Digest 1901-1950, Part IX and X, Digest Publication, Madras, 1950.

Cuddalore Ramachandra Aiyer, “Manual of Malabar Law As Administered by the Courts”, West & Co., Madras, 1883.

Graeme’s Report of Revenue Administration of Malabar dated 14th January 1822, Glossary, Kerala State Archives, Government of Kerala, 2010.

Graeme’s Report of the Revenue Administration of Malabar, dated 14th January 1822, p. 466.

Gundert, H., A Malayalam and English Dictionary, C.Stolz, Madras, 1872.

Herbert Wigram, A Commentary on Malabar Law and Custom, Cookson & Co, Madras, 1882.

Indian Cases: Containing Full Reports of Decisions of Privy Council-the High Courts of Allahabad…Madras, vol. 55, Law Publishing press, Madras, 1920.

Indian Law Cases; Madras Series, vol. XLV. (High Court Library, Ernakulum).

Kelu Kurup vs. Raman Nair, AIR 1924 M 247.

Kunjambu vs. Kerala VarmaValya Raja, 1910 MWN 143.

Kunji Krishnan, V., V. Tenancy Legislation in Malabar, 1880- 1970 an Historical Analysis, Northern Book Centre, New Delhi, 1993.

Kurup, K.K.N. (Ed.), Kavalappara Papers, Department of History, Calicut University, Ferok, 1984.

Lewis Moore, Malabar Law and Custom, 3rd edition, Higginbotham & co., Madras, 1905.

Logan William, Malabar Special Commission 1881-82; Malabar land Tenures Report, vol. II, Appendix. I to XXI, Government of Madras, Madras, 1882.

Logan, William, Malabar Manual, vol. I, Government Press, Madras, 1951.

Logan, William, Malabar Special Commission 1881-82; Malabar land Tenures Report, vol. I, Government of Madras, Madras, 1882.

Madhavan Nair, Kozhikot, the Malabar Law Digest and Acts, Vidhya Vilasam Press, Calicut, 1941.

Malabar Law Report, vol. I, p.15, in Herbart Wigram’s, A Commentary on the Malabar Law and Custom, Cockson & Co., 1882.

Margaret Frenz,  From Contact to Conquest; Transition to British Rule in Malabar 1790-1805, Oxford University Press, Newyork, 2003. Many scholars characterised the Malabar land relation as Janmam-kanam Maryyada or Janmi-Kudiyan Sambradayam.

Moore, Lewis, Malabar Law and Custom, 3rd edition, Higginbotham & co., Madras, 1905.

Mulla on the Transfer of Property Act, 1882, 5th ed., N.M. Tripathi Private Ltd., Bombay, 1960.

Narayanan, M.T., Agrarian relation in late medieval Malabar, Northern Book Centre, New Delhi, 2003.

Narayanan, M.T., Agrarian relation in late medieval Malabar, Northern Book Centre, New Delhi, 2003.

Observation of the Land Tenures on Southern India, A Madras Civilian, Cook son & Co., Madras, 1866.

Panikkar, K., N. Against Lord and State: Religion and peasant Uprisings in Malabar, 1836-1921, Oxford University press, New Delhi, 2001.

Powell Baden, Land System of British India, vol. iii, Book IV, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1892.

Proceedings of the court of Sadr Udalut, 5th August 1856, in Charles Turner’s Minutes on the Draft Bill Relating to the Land Tenures 1885.

Proceedings of the Court of Sudder Udulat, 5th August 1856, in Sir Charles Turner’s Minutes on the Draft Bill relating to the land Tenures 1885, Appendix XVI (High Court Library, Ernakulam).

Radha Krishnan .P., Peasant Struggles, land Reforms and Social Change; Malabar 1836-1982, Sage Publication, New Delhi, 1989.

Ramachandra Aiyer, Cuddalore, “Manual of Malabar Law as Administered by the Courts”,  West & Co., Madras, 1883.

Raru Nair vs. Pakaravur Swamiar, 8 MLT 284.

Report of Malabar Tenancy Committee, 1940, Evidence, vol. ii, p. 24.

Report on the Administration of the Madras Presidency during the Year 1869-70, Govt. press, Madras, 1870.

Roy, Sripati, Custom and Customary law in British India, Calcutta, 1911.

Sir Charles Turner’s Minutes on the Draft Bill relating to the land Tenures 1885. (High Court Library, Ernakulam).

Sivasankara Menon, P. Malabar Land Tenures, Vidhya Vilasam Press, Ernakulum, 1939. (High Court Library, Ernakulum).

Soman, N. S. Permanent Tenures in Kerala: Features of the Law, Cochin University law Review, vol. XV, 1991, pp. 400-416.

Statistics of Malabar, R/45, Department of History, Calicut University, Kozhikode.

Sundaraja Aiyangar. S., Land Tenures in the Madras Presidency, Commercial Press Triplicane, Madras, 1916, p. 247.

SundararajaIyengar, S., Land Tenures in the Madras Presidency, 2nd edition, Commercial press, Triplicane, Madras, 1921.

The Fifth Report from the Select Committee on the Affairs of the East India Company, Vol. ii Madras Presidency, J. Higginbotham, Madras, 1866.

The Indian Law Reports, vol. iv, Madras Series, 1881. (High Court Library, Ernakulum).

The Malabar Law Reports, vol. I, (High Court Library, Ernakulum).

The twelve year term for kanamwas not regarded as a part of the common law of Malabar up to 1853.

Varghese, T.C., Agrarian Change and Economic Consequences; Land Tenures in Kerala 1850-1960, Glossary, Allied Publishers, New Delhi, 1970.

Walker, Major, Report upon the Tenures and Forms of Transfer of Land in Malabar, 20th July 1801, Malabar Government Press, Calicut, 1862.

Wigram M.A., Herbert, A Commentary on Malabar Law and Custom, Cookson &Co., Madras, 1882.

Wigram, Herbert., Digest of Cases Decided by the High court of Madras, Higginbotham and co., Madras, 1874.

William Logan, Malabar manual, vol. I, Government Press, Madras, 1951 p. 608-614.

 

To cite this article


Gopika, G. (2019). The Nature of Saswatam Tenure and  the Colonial Land Law. John Foundation Journal of EduSpark, 1(3), 34-52.

To View Article