John Foundation Journal of EduSpark
August 12, 2019
Sparkling_v2i3_July-September 2019
September 30, 2019

John Foundation Journal of EduSpark

(A Quarterly Peer Reviewed/Refereed Multidisciplinary Journal)

Volume 1 Issue 3 July - September 2019

MARGINALIZATION- AN APOLOGY FOR LOW LEARNING OUTCOMES AMONG CHILDREN

Ikanshi Khanna

Assistant Professor, Centre for Early Childhood Development & Research, Jamia Millia Islamia.  Jamia Nagar, Okhla, New Delhi, India.

Abstract


Children living under marginalized conditions are present in most of the communities across the world. Therefore, understanding marginalization as a concept is challenging, because there is seldom an agreed definition of the term within any one country, let alone across countries. Children and their families who are confined to the peripheral edge of the society are considered to be marginalized in general. Marginalization for these children in their early learning phase is a form of relentless disadvantage rooted in underlying social inequalities. Marginalization is one of the major factors contributing to low learning achievements among children. It is however, important to understand this statement more clearly by addressing a few significant questions like who are marginalized children? What are the factors contributing to their exclusion and lack of early learning opportunities? How innovative courses in child development at higher education can contribute to better educational outcomes?  Unpacking these queries may unravel a few threads behind marginalization in early learning among children.

Keywords


marginalization, child development, early learning, educational outcomes, higher education, ECCE, SDGs.

THE MAHILA AGHADI: THE SHIV SENA WOMEN AND URBAN POLITICS

Kamini Sharma

Research Scholar, Centre for Political Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, Delhi, India.

Abstract


The paper takes into account the urban poor and political patronage with changing contours of ‘violence’ in Mumbai through the work of Shiv Sena’s women wing Mahila Aghadi. The paradoxical emancipation and empowerment of women within the patriarchal fold brings women to the public sphere realizing the benefits of collective violence simultaneously redefining the term social service with respect to legitimacy gained by coercive acts marking them as cases of ‘political violence’ rather than mere criminal acts. The significance of this study is that it provides insights into the informal interaction of urban poor with the state to access state security and the role of informal institutions such as Mahila Aghadi in widening the access to public space for women. The paper argues that it is the informal institutions established through political brokerage that provide the grey area for urban poor to become less vulnerable. While the state is not present everywhere, willingly or unwillingly, but the perception of state and discourse around it is inevitable and omnipresent.

Keywords


violence, state, informal institutions, mahila aghadi, urban politics

BREAKING THE STEREO TYPES: A STUDY OF THE MOVIE ASTITVA

Sweta Kumari

Research Scholar, P.G. Department of English, Magadh University, Bodh-Gaya, Bihar. India.

Abstract


Women have been depicted in an emblematic image of Sita, Radha, Savitri, and Mira repeatedly on screen since ages. In fact, women are seen to be extreme sufferers in comparison to their male-counterparts. Likely they have been treated merely as pretty dolls by the society. With the passage of time, the same prevailing image of women has been questioned in varied manner through films which gave women a new space on celluloid. The film, Astitva (2000) is directed by Mahesh Manjrekar. It portrays Aditi as a traditional Indian housewife in the beginning of this movie and later on the same represents her as an independent, rebellious and a self-respected woman. In a way, the film is an exploration of how Aditi becomes expressive and decisive with times especially when she suffers humiliation and disgrace on the part of her husband. Apart from this, she recognizes her individuality when she finds herself of being treated as “other” in her own house. Thus, the present study focuses on Aditi asserts herself for a respectable life and how she interrogates bond of marriage and a woman’s space in society. Moreover, the paper re-defines feminism with a different outlook on how Aditi emancipates herself from the subordination of the male-dominated society.

Keywords


marriage, independence, hypocrisy, subordination, feminism, humiliation.

THE NATURE OF SASWATAM TENURE AND THE COLONIAL LAND LAW

Gopika G

Research Scholar, Department of History, Sree Sankaracharya University of Sanskrit, Kalady, Ernakulam District, Kerala, India.

Abstract


Saswatam is the word used to denote perpetual leases in Malabar. Perpetual leases are grants of land made over by the overlord, temple and the Brahmins to their subordinates as the remuneration for the service they rendered. These grants were known by different names. The grantees had enjoyed hereditary permanent right over these grants. According to the pre- colonial land law the right over land indicated solely their right and interest over the share of produce from the land. This customary law of rights and interests on land were reinterpreted on the basis of western idea of private property on land. The colonial land law declared Janmi as the sole proprietor of the soil, as the result the hereditary holders were disposed of their right. The independent right of the tenants were disturbed with the intervention of law courts. The Janmis resorted various measures to oust the tenants from their land with the legal support. Second half of the 19th century witnessed active involvement of colonial judiciary in settling the dispute raised over the proprietary right on the land granted on perpetual lease.

Keywords


saswatam tenure, colonial land law, malabar

BREAKING THE SILENCE : A CRITICAL READING OF MADHAVAN’S FEAR OF PULAYAS

Srilata K

Associate Professor, Department of English, Bharathi Women’s College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract


This paper is an attempt to bring out the marginalised sect into the limelight to make an awareness of the depth of inhuman atrocities meted out to the oppressed of the suppressed class of people, especially women. To be more precise, the story speaks volumes of the sufferings that have been silently endured by the women of the upper caste, more so of the cries of widows, due to the orthodox practices in the upper caste, Namboodar is in the state of Kerala. The story, Fear of Pulayas authored by N.S. Madhavan mirrors the condition of living of these subaltern women. Madhavan has given a befitting climax to the social evils that had prevailed in Kerala in the name of following certain age-old practices in a patriarchal perspective. Breaking the norms and liberating herself from the clutches of the caste system, Savitri, the victim of humiliation, the upper caste Antherjanam holds the hands of Chathan, the Pulaya and hoots like a Pulaya.

Keywords


breaking, silence, fear, pulayas, reading, madhavan