Sparkling_v3i1_January-March 2020
March 31, 2020
EduSpark_v2i2_April-June 2020
June 30, 2020

John Foundation Journal of EduSpark

(A Quarterly Peer Reviewed/Refereed Multidisciplinary Journal)

Volume 2 Issue 1 January - March 2020

THEMATIC CONCERNS OF THE POST-APARTHEID NOVELS OF NADINE GORDIMER AND J M COETZEE

Narasimha Murthy S V

Assistant Professor, Department of English, Presidency University, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

Abstract


South African texts published after the first democratic elections in 1994 are commonly referred to as post-apartheid literature because, despite the lingering after-effects of the former political system, this event marked the eradication of legalized racial segregation. Post-apartheid writing is marked by an abrupt shift away from a racial focus towards a wider concern with all the many and various dimensions of human existence. The end of apartheid witnessed the emergence of new social problems that writers have attempted to confront in their works. This major political shift prompts many questions. What happens to the many committed writers who used to denounce political oppression in their texts? What themes do they take up? Whether the South African writers would be able to adjust their writing to the new political climate, since the end of racial oppression implies liberation from the old racial discourse. How different will their literature be from the literature written during the apartheid period? This paper tries to explore these possibilities. The paper tries to analyze critically the different themes and topics of South African novelists-Nadine Gordimer and J M Coetzee-and  a thorough study of their novels- Disgrace and  The Pick Up –written during this period looking for the new dimensions and new themes that they focuses on.

Keywords


post-apartheid, themes, racism, oppression, social evils

EFFECT OF DEMONETIZATION IN AGRICULTURE SECTOR

*Mehjabeen & **Saravanadurai A

*Research Scholar, Department of Economics, Periyar University, Salem, Tamilnadu, India.

**Associate Professor, Department of Economics, Periyar University, Salem, Tamilnadu, India.

Abstract


The demonetization in India was a cardiac arrest which leads to cash crunch in almost all the sectors inclusive of the Agriculture Sector. The growth rate in the sector tightened to 0.2% in 2014-15 and grew not more than 1.2% in 2015-16 mostly because of continuous drought.  It’s affecting various sectors, especially agriculture. Farmers and small vendors faced many problems. The seasons like Rabbi and Kharif are suffering through a cash crunch. Demonetization shadowed over the agriculture sector through Indirect taxes by making an impact on wholesalers and farmers. Farmers weren’t able to buy seeds, fertilizers, agriculture equipment’s by cash as their cash was locked in the banks and the cash in hand was having no use unless it is exchanged with the new currency. The Indian farmers are not used to smart phones and digital technologies as most of them just use their phone for making phone calls. They faced trouble to do their transaction using apps such as Paytm, phone pay etc. The bank interest rates dropped which, reduced the capital cost that in turn led to farm mechanization. Cash crunch made some horticulture farmers’ lives pathetic as onion prices touched the peak. Agricultural growth in India contracted 0.2% in 2014-15 and grew not more than 1.2% in 2015‐16, largely because of back‐to‐back droughts.

Keywords


agriculture, demonetization, kharif, rabbi, rural economy, horticulture.

‘THE BOYFRIEND’:  A NARRATIVE OF INCLUSION AND SEARCH FOR IDENTITY

Devarshi Modi

Research Scholar, Gujarat University. Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.

Abstract


The present Paper is study of Raj Rao’s major work and first novel of the Indian history to be deal with the homosexual subject matter. The chapter is detail analysis of all the aspects of The Boyfriend through the lens of theory of Gay writings. Here in the present chapter attempt is made to study the book from the theoretical perspective of Foucault, Kofesky, Diana Fuss, and McIntoshe. R. Raj Rao one of the leading gay right activist of India. A writer of Poems, Short stories, fictions as well as Plays, Serving at the University of Pune. He has presented number of papers at national as well international level at various places. When The Boyfriend Came out front has created quite a stir and became topic of talk for various magazines as a guide to the then underground gay subculture Bombay. It is being use as model for LGBTQ studies in Indian Research forum .They were used to projects certain dominance over women that is why they were used to call or famously known as a patriarchal. They were having image of torchbearers of patriarchal society. Alternate masculinity’s present in India as closed entity. The fear of discrimination and rejection has never approve this community for public appearance. They have two-dimensional identity crisis one with themselves and other with society. Having realising different or homosexual tendency of their nature they have to first accept themselves as their ancestors have presented cis gender.

Keywords


LGBTQ, masculinity, society, cis gender, homosexuality, indian history.

FEMALE WORKFORCE PARTICIPATION IN KERALA WITH A SPECIAL REFERENCE TO KOTTAYAM DISTRICT

*Akhila P Nair, **Subbiah, G., &  ***Sreeja J. P.

* Research Scholar, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli, Tamilnadu, India.

**Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, S.T.Hindu college, Nagarcoil, Tamilnadu, India.

*** Assistant Professor, Department  of Economics, Sree Devi Kumari Women’s College,  Kuzhithura , Tamilnadu, India.

Abstract


The study has brought to light some of the emerging trends (a poor picture) of female work participation in Kottayam district of Kerala. The major reasons have been identified as income and occupation of husband, size of land holding, repulsive attitudes of the family members, caring of elderly, caring of children, low wage, health problems, and lack of proper transportation facilities etc. Each of these reasons affect women’s work participation adversely as well as pose challenges to the state in the future.

Keywords


work participation rate, non workers, main workers, marginal workers, employment, unemployment, caste, literacy, income, occupation.

AGNI IN ĀYURVEDIC CONCEPT

Sudhalakshmi C

Research Scholar, Department of Sahitya, Sree Sankaracharya University of  Sanskrit, Kalady, Kerala, India.

Abstract


Āyurveda is the traditional ancient Indian system of health science. In this science gave more importance to Agni or fire.  It has significant role to maintain body homeostasis, body functioning, metabolism, of body and proper functioning of body. According to the functions and site of action, Agni has been divided in to 13 as, 1 jadaragni, 5 Bhudagni, 7 Jadaragni. Agni also used in to the surgical purpose. Agnikarma has been given a special place in surgery by Suśruta and it is believed that disease treated by Agnikarma never reoccurs. This paper deals with the concept of Agni in Āyurveda and surgery.

Keywords


agni, bhūdagni, jadarāgni dagdāgni, agnikarma