June 30, 2022
June 30, 2022


*Shahna. K., A. & **Jyothirmani Vatakkayil

*Ph.D. Research Scholar, Department of History, Pocker Sahib Memorial Orphanage College, Tirurangadi Malappuram, Kerala, India.

**Assistant Professor & Head, Department of History, Sri Vyasa N S S College, Wadakkanchery, Thrissur, Kerala, India.


Marginalized communities’ suppressed past is just as essential as their beliefs and rituals. Wherever a group feels excluded, it may create a ritual structure that is distinct from the way of thinking in that community. In various faiths, members of the upper caste have claimed that the outcaste shouldn’t witness and participated in their rites. Mukkuvar is a maritime ethnic group found in the Indian states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu They are mostly found on the Malabar Coast, South Travancore Coast, and Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, and have traditionally been involved in fishing, shipment, navy, and trade (J. S. Grewal, 2005).  We can comprehend the marginalization imposed on these people by society if we look at their history in Kerala or conduct a case study of the current circumstances.


marginalisation, mukkuva, pandal kizhikkal, puli kudi, chera dynasty



Aerthayil, M. (2000). Chapter III: The Traditional Fish workers of Kerala. In: Fish worker’s Movement in Kerala (1977-1994)- The Role of Non-Party Political Organisations in Social Transformation in India. New Delhi: Indian Social Institute. 22-34.

Chekutty, N., P. (2010). Social and communal tensions along the Kerala cost. website: on the 7th of August 2012.

Dennis, B. McGilvray. (1982). Caste ideology and interaction. Cambridge [Cambridgeshire]: Cambridge University Press.

Devi, R. Leela. (1986). History of Kerala. Vidyarthi Mithram Press & Book Depot. 101.

Dietrich, G. and Nayak., N. (2002). Chapter 4: Fishing as a Traditional Occupation. In: Transition or Transformation? A study of mobilization, organization, and the emergence of consciousness among the fish workers of Kerala. Tamil Nadu, Department of Social Analysis, Tamil Nadu Theological Society. 58-81.

Edgar Thurston. (1909). Castes and Tribes of Southern India.   vol – ii, government press madras.

Hapke, H., M. (2001). Development, Gender and Household Survival in a Kerala Fishery. Economic and Political Weekly, March 31, 2001, 1103-1107.

Houtart, and Nayak. (1988). Chapter I: Challenges of a culture in transition. In: Kerala Fishermen: Culture and Social Organisation. Centre D’ Analyse Sociale. De La Culture (Centre Tricontinental). Lovaine- la-Neuve, Belgium. p 1-18.

Kurien., J. (2001). The Socio-Cultural Aspects of Fisheries: Implications for Food and Livelihood Security: A case study of Kerala state, India.  Goodwin, J., R., M. (ed) Understanding the cultures of fishing communities: A key to fisheries management and food security. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 401, 196-217.

Mathur, P., R., G. (1978). The Mappila Fisherfolk of Kerala. Published by Kerala Historical Society. Trivandrum.

Mayer, Markus; Rajasingham-Senanayake, Darini; Thangarajah, Yuvi. (2003). Building Local Capacities for Peace: Rethinking Conflict and Development in Sri Lanka. Macmillan India. 69.

Mc Gilvray, Dennis B. (1974). Tamils and Moors: caste and matriclan structure in eastern Sri Lanka. The University of Chicago. 23–25.

Ram., K. (1991). Chapter 3: Popular religion and femininity (1): the disciplining of the female body in popular Catholicism. In: Mukkuvar Women: Gender, hegemony and Capitalist Transformation in a South India Fishing Community. Sydney, Allen, and Unwin Private limited. 45-112.

Ram., K. (1991). Chapter 9: Sexual codification of women’s work: domesticity and female proletarianization in the Mukkuvar community. In: Mukkuvar Women: Gender, hegemony and Capitalist Transformation in a South India Fishing Community. Sydney, Allen, and Unwin Private limited, 200-229.

Grewal, S. Philosophy, and Culture Project of History of Indian Science. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Pathmanathan., S. (1978). The Kingdom of Jaffna. Arul M. Rajendran.

Samuel., J. (1998). The Mukkuvar: A Fishing Community. In: Lifestyle and Ecology. New Delhi: Indira Gandhi National Centre for Arts.

Schneider, David Murray; Gough, Kathleen. (1974). Matrilineal Kinship. University of California Press, 415.

Singh, Virendra Prakash. (1992). Community and Caste in Tradition. Commonwealth Publishers, 33.


To cite this article

Shahna. K., A. & Jyothirmani Vatakkayil. (2022). Ritual Marginalisation?:  Through a Varied Traditional Perspective of the Mukkuva Community in Kerala. John Foundation Journal of EduSpark, 4(2), 32-43.

To View Article

Social media & sharing icons powered by UltimatelySocial