June 30, 2019
June 30, 2019


Sumodan P K

Associate Professor, Post Graduate and Research Department of Zoology, Government College, Madappally, Vadakara, Kerala, India.


Kerala is home to six mosquito-borne diseases, viz., Lymphatic filariasis, Malaria, Japanese Encephalitis, Dengue, Chikungunya and West Nile Virus. Since, 1934 several vector incrimination studies have been done in different species of mosquitoes. Filarial parasites were detected from as many as 16 mosquito species, the important ones being Culex quinquefasciatus, Mansonia annularia and Mansonia uniformis. Malaria parasites were detected from Anopheles culicifacies, An. fluviatilis, An. jeyporiensis and An. varuna. Japanese Encephalitis virus was detected from Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. gelidus, Mansonia uniformis, Ma. indiana, Ma.annulifera and Anopheles subpictus. Both dengue and chikungunya viruses were detected from Aedes albopictus. West Nile Virus has not been detected from any mosquito species so far.


mosquito, vector, incrimination, lymphatic filariasis, dengue, chikungunya, virus.


Agarwal, V., K., & Sashindran V., K. (2006). Lymphatic Filariasis in India: Problems, Challenges and New Initiatives. MJAFI, 62: 359-362.
Anukumar, B., Gajanan, N.S., Babeesh V.T., Balasubramanian, R., & Gangale, D. (2014). West Nile encephalitis outbreak in Kerala, India, 2011. Journal of Clinical Virology, 61(1): 152-155.
Arunachalam, N., Philip Samuel, P., Hiriyan, J., Thenmozhi, V. & Gajanana, A. (2004). Japanese Encephalitis in Kerala, South India: Can Mansonia (Diptera: Culicidae) play a supplemental role in transmission? J. Med. Entomol. 41(3): 456-461.
Banerjee, K. and Desai, P. K. (1973). Survey of arbovirus antibodies in South India. Indian J Med Res. 61:344-351.
Covell, G. (1931). The present state of our knowledge regarding the transmission of malaria by the different species of Anopheline mosquitoes. Records of the Malaria Survey of India. 2:1-48.
Covell, G., and Singh, H. (1939). Malaria in the Wayanad, South India. Journal of Malaria Institute of India, 2:341-376.
Cruickshank, A. and Wright, R.E. (1914). Filariasis in Cochin. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 1:741-785.
Das, B.P., Kabilan, L., Sharma, S.N., Lal, S. Regu, K. and Saxena, V.K.(2004). Detection of Dengue Virus in Wild Caught Aedes albopictus (Skuse) around Kozhikode Airport, Malappuram District, Kerala, India. Dengue Bulletin, 28: 210-212.
Dhanda, V., Thenmozhi, V., Kumar, N.P., Hiriyan, J., Arunachalam, N., Balasubramanian, A., Ilango, A. and Gajanana, A. (1997). Virus isolation from wild-caught mosquitoes during a Japanese encephalitis outbreak in Kerala in 1996. Indian J Med Res 7: 4-6.
Feroze, M. and Aravindan, K.P (2001). Sickle cell disease in Wayanad, Kerala: Gene frequencies and disease characteristics. Nat Med J India 14:267.
Iyengar, M.O.T. (1934). Anopheles found naturally infected with malaraia parasites in Travancore. Records of the Malaria Survey of India, 4(1): 61-63.
Iyengar, M.O.T. (1938). Studies on the epidemiology of filariasis in Travancore. Indian Medical Research Memoirs. pp. 179.
John, J, T. (2006). Dengue virus diseases in Kerala. ICMR bulletin. 36 (4-5): 23.
Kannan, M., Rajendran, R., Sunish, I.P., Balasubramaniam,R., Arunchalam, N., Paramasivan, R., Tewari, S.C., Philip Samuel, P. and Tyagi, B.K. (2009). A study on chikungunya outbreak during 2007 in Kerala, South India. Indian J Med Res 129: 311-315.
Kaur, M., Das, G.P. and Verma, I.C. (1997). Sickle cell trait & disease among tribal commu nities in Orissa, Madhya Pradesh & Kerala. Indian J Med Res. 105:111-116.
Kumar, N.P., Rajan Joseph, Kamaraj, T and Jambulingam, P. (2008). A226V mutation in virus during the 2007 chikungunya outbreak in Kerala, India. J Gen Virol 89: 1945-1948.
Kuno, G. and Chang, G-JJ. (2005). Biological transmission of arboviruses: re-examination of and new insights into components, mechanisms, and unique traits as well as their evolutionary trends. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 18: 608–637.
Manju, G.E. and Sushamabai, S. (2009). Outbreak of Chikungunya Disease in Kerala in 2007. Indian Pediatrics. 46:440.
Manson, P. (1878). On the Development of Filaria sanguinis hominis, and on the Mosquito considered as a Nurse. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 14(75): 304–311.
Mathew M.L. (1939). Anopheles transmitters of malaria in South Travancore . J. Mal. Inst. India. 2: 101-104.
Niyas, P.K., Abraham, R., Nair, R.U., Mathew, T., Nair, S., Manakkadan, A., Issac, A. and Sreekumar, E. (2010). Molecular characteri zation of Chikungunya virus isolates from clinical samples and adult Aedes albopictus mosquitoes emerged from larvae from Kerala, South India. Virology Journal 7:189.
Paramasivan, R., Mishra, A.C. and Maurya, D.T. (2003). West Nile Virus: The Indian Scenario. Indian J Med Res. 188(9): 101-108.
Raghavan, N.G.S. (1957). Epidemiology of filariasis in India. Bull. Wld. Hlth. Org. 16: 553-579.
Reed, W. Carroll, J. and Agramonte, A. (1901). The etiology of yellow fever. JAMA 86:431–40.
Ross , R. (1897). On some peculiar pigmented cells found in two mosquitoes fed on malarial blood. British Medical Journal, 1786-1788.
Scherer,W.F., Dickerman, R.W., Diaz-Najera, A., Ward, B.A., Miler, M.H. and Schaffer, P.A. (1971). Ecological studies of Venezuelan Encephalitis Virus in South Eastern Mexico-III Infection of mosquitoes. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 20: 969-979.
Thenmozhi, V., Hiriyan, J., Tewari, S.C., Philip Samuel, P., Paramasivan, R., Rajendran, R., Mani, T.R. & Tyagi, B.K. (2007). Natural Vertical Transmission of Dengue Virus in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Kerala, a Southern Indian State. Jpn. J. Infect. Dis. 60: 245-249.


To cite this article

Sumodan, P., K . (2019). Mosquito Vector Incrimination Studies in Kerala, India: A Review. John Foundation Journal of EduSpark, 1(2), 45-54.

To View Article